Monday

Electrical Safety Track

Title: Root Cause Analysis for Electrical Safety

2/26/18
9:30AM - 10:15AM
Presenter: Dennis Neitzel, AVO Training Institute, Inc.
Description:

The electrical safety inspection program should also include a Root Cause Analysis of the deficiencies identified during the inspection. A root cause analysis is a systematic approach for identifying the underlying causes of why an incident or accident occurred so that the most effective solutions can be identified and implemented. Within any industrial or commercial organization problem solving, incident investigation, and root cause analysis are all fundamentally connected by three basic questions:

  1. What is the problem?
  2. Why did it happen?
  3. What will be done to prevent it in the future?

A root cause analysis is essentially a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of incidents, faults, or problems. Hazards identified during an inspection, recommended changes or corrections in processes, and safe work practices and procedures should be analyzed to help prevent a reoccurrence. Any deficiencies identified in the inspection, along with lessons learned, should be communicated to all potentially affected personnel in the organization that may benefit from the information.

Transformers Track

Title: Transformer Oil Processing and Transformer Field Vacuum Dryout

2/26/18
9:30AM - 10:15AM
Presenter: Gregory Steeves, Baron USA
Description:

Whether due to atmospheric contamination; the byproducts of aging; or other causes, transformer insulation and insulating oil will gradually increase in contamination with water, gases, particulate and oxidation products. These contaminants reduce the ability of the insulation and oil to serve their purpose. Therefore, transformer life depends heavily on the condition of the liquid and solid insulation. The liquid insulation can be maintained and restored with purification and reclamation. The solid insulation, however, is difficult to maintain directly. Various technologies and techniques are available to maintain the insulation (both directly & indirectly). Appropriate selection and application of transformer dry-out technologies and techniques can extend transformer life, reduce downtime and save money. These technologies and their field applications will be discussed.

Reliability Track

Title: Performing Cable Diagnostics on MV Cables with Special Emphasis on Offline Partial Discharge

2/26/18
9:30AM - 10:15AM
Presenter: Craig Goodwin, HV Diagnostics
Description:

The recent new developments in MV Cable testing standards has resulted in many NETA companies having to both re-tool and re-educate their workforce, replacing their traditional DC hipots with new modern AC Very Low Frequency (VLF) hipots required by these new standards. These VLF AC test instruments also provide new and superior cable diagnostic capabilities that were not available with their older DC counterparts. In this regard, VLF Tan Delta (TD) diagnostics of MV cables has become the norm in the industry with strong standards and guides providing the necessary acceptance criteria.
What is less familiar to most NETA companies, or at the very least, very misunderstood, is the performance of Partial Discharge diagnostics with these AC hipots. This presentation highlights the exciting application of Offline PD testing of MV Cables, emphasizing the benefits and challenges involved, showing practical examples from the field. This presentation is a must for anyone wanting to learn more about PD testing of MV cables in the field.

Equipment Track

Title: The Importance of Condenser Type Bushing

2/26/18
9:30AM - 10:15AM
Presenter: Keith Hill, Doble Engineering Company
Description:

A short history of the bushing from the first used bulk type bushing to the dry and oil filled condenser type bushing. This paper will point out how the condenser type bushing allowed for higher voltages to be used. Without the condenser type bushing higher voltages were limited to the physical size of the bulk type bushings. A review of the standard recommended off-line test procedures such as C1 and C2 as well as diagnostic tests such as inverted C1, C1 + C2 and tip-up will be reviewed. Abnormal power factors and capacitances will be covered and some common causes for these abnormal test results. Importance of the BIL rating and various voltage classes will also be covered.

Relays Track

Title: Presentation of IEEE PSRC, WG I-25 Report

2/26/18
9:30AM - 10:15AM
Presenter: Will Knapek, OMICRON electronics Corp. USA
Description:

This presentation will be on the IEEE PSRC Working Group I-25 report "Commissioning Testing of Protection Systems"

There are many different types of protection system testing described and explained in IEEE C37.233, Guide for Power System Protection Testing [B1]. Although part of the guide covers the subject of commissioning testing of protection systems, this report is intended to strictly focus on providing recommendations on commissioning testing.
As discussed in IEEE C37.233 - 2009, the objective of commissioning tests are to evaluate the condition of protection equipment after installation, but before final energization to verify that equipment is installed and wired properly, to verify that correct settings and configurations are applied, and to observe interaction with other power apparatus. The focus of the tests is to confirm that the systems function as designed.
The guide identifies the following commissioning test objectives:
Install and integrate the system components with the site current transformers (CTs), voltage transformer (VTs), sensors, communications systems, wiring and auxiliary power supplies.
Verify that factory-supplied connections are correct and complete.
Verify each component performs in accordance with vendor specifications and type testing for that component.
Test interactions and overall system performance with samplings of test cases across the spectrum of possibilities, but not a comprehensive suite as used for factory type tests.
Test the overall scheme by simulating power system events that cannot be generated on demand using techniques described in the guide. Examples include: transient simulation, tests for abnormal conditions, end -to-end testing and functional testing of applications using IEC 61850.
Operate other power apparatus or secondary control systems in the vicinity to show that the system is secure and/or dependable in the face of spurious environmental influences or communications traffic. Verify proper mapping and operation of the protective device with other data/control systems to which it is interconnected.
The objectives identified in the guide, are accomplished through testing protocols and other analysis techniques, as well as specific approaches to how equipment is added to the existing infrastructure.

Equipment Track

Title: Review of Medium-Voltage Asset Failure Investigations

2/26/18
10:30AM - 11:15AM
Presenter: William Higinbotham, EA Technology LLC
Description:

A forensic investigation, or "post mortem", of failed equipment is an excellent tool to gain insight into the methods by failures occur. Knowing the root cause failure mechanism allows you to determine the best practice for condition assessment. It can also provide input into workmanship or equipment issues that might make future failures preventable. EA Technology maintains a forensic failure investigation lab that specializes in failures of medium voltage switchgear, cables, and cable accessories. In the past several years, this lab has done dozens of failure investigations for power system operators around the world.
This paper reviews the existing failure investigation reports and uses that experience to look at the most common failures and their root causes. It summarizes the best methods for avoiding the failures and for detecting impending failures on in-service equipment. The failure studies include equipment from 11KV to 33KV. Cables, splices, terminations, and metal clad switchgear failures are all examined in this paper.

Relays Track

Title: Transformer Differential Testing & Commissioning

2/26/18
10:30AM - 11:15AM
Presenter: John Lane, Doble Engineering Company
Description:

Transformers can be the single largest investment in the substation. Loss of a transformer can be catastrophic with damage to surrounding bus and circuit breaker network not to mention lose to power to consumers and potential loss of stability of the grid. They can range in size from 5 MVA to over 1000 MVA. The higher the MVA the more complex the protection scheme can be. Protection can range from high-side fuses to overcurrent protection to differential with adaptive harmonic restraint. Transformers can range from single to multi-winding. Transformers can be protected as a single unit or part of a larger network. Basic transformer testing will be discussed as well new advances in transformer protection, testing, and commissioning including two stage slope adaptive test that detects internal versus external faults and commissioning will be discussed.

Electrical Safety Track

Title: Identifying Residual Risk from Electrical Hazards: Avoiding Pitfalls to Achieve Risk ALARP

2/26/18
10:30AM - 11:15AM
Presenter: H. Landis Floyd, Electrical Safety Group, Inc.
Description:

This paper discusses 3 topics in safety risk management: Risk Assessment, Residual Risk and achieving risk As Low as Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). Although widely used for more than 70 years in reducing likelihood of mishaps with extraordinary catastrophic consequences, risk management was emphasized in the 2015 revision to NFPA70E in the 2012 revision. In this revision, Annex F was revised and retitled, "Risk Assessment Procedure". Practitioners in electrical safety may be new in applying tools and methodologies essential to effective risk management. This paper will discuss techniques to avoid two pitfalls in applying risk assessment methodologies: 1) overestimating effectiveness of applied risk control measure, and 2) underestimating residual risk.

Transformers Track

Title: Review of Wye/Delta Transformer Connections & How It Affects Current & Voltage Measured on Both Sides of the Transformer

2/26/18
10:30AM - 11:15AM
Presenter: Todd Martin, Basler Electric
Description:

Incorrectly identified transformer connections and CT connections continue to be a leading cause of incorrectly protected or underprotected transformers. Sometimes, in an effort to overcome incorrectly identified system configuration, the protection is set to provide minimal protection. At other times, differential protection is disabled altogether. This paper discusses wye/delta transformers in various configurations. It explains the phase relationship of voltage and current in most common transformer connections as well as common CT connections in legacy and modern protection. This paper shows the phase and magnitude relationship for both balanced and unbalanced conditions.
The paper includes discussion of tools available today to help with understanding the system, at commissioning and in the event a fault occurs later. Modern relays offer differential reports that can help identify incorrectly configured protection. Modern COMTRADE viewers make it much easier to understand what happened in an incorrectly set relay so that the issue may be resolved.

Reliability Track

Title: Timing and Travel Analysis of the Medium-Voltage Vacuum Circuit Breakers

2/26/18
10:30AM - 11:15AM
Presenter: Albert Livshitz, CE Power Engineered Services, LLC
Description:

During the operation of the circuit interruption, device opening time and velocity of the primary contacts play a very critical role. This is even more important for the medium voltage vacuum circuit breakers. Configuration and design of the contacts inside the vacuum interrupters cause the contacts to bounce during the closing operation creating micro welds over the surface. These could significantly impede the subsequent opening operation. Mechanism wear and lack of maintenance and lubrication of the vacuum circuit breaker could result in slowing down the opening and closing operation. Adjustments of the operating mechanism; realignment of the primary disconnects; replacement of the components, including the vacuum interrupters; or any other mechanical intervention during the maintenance of the vacuum circuit breakers requires to be verified through timing testing and travel analysis. This paper will address various failure modes of medium voltage vacuum circuit breakers associated with the inadequate velocity and timing of the closing and opening operation, and will provide recommendations for timing and travel analysis testing during the maintenance, reconditioning or repairs.

Equipment Track

Title: A Customer’s Perspective: Electrical Testing Agencies

2/26/18
11:30AM - 12:15PM
Presenter: Randall Sagan, MBUSI
Description:

As a facility electrical engineer at a large automotive assembly plant for over twenty-three years, I have had the opportunity to work with several different electrical testing agencies on many different projects. This paper discusses some of my experiences related to acceptance testing, commissioning, startup, and annual power system maintenance. I will cover the most successful projects along with the not-so-successful projects, and describe the factors that contributed to each.

When properly planned and executed, the best projects were done safely, in a timely manner, and provided reliable and useful information related to the condition of the power system. My experiences as a "customer" provide a unique perspective that can be beneficial to anyone who may be involved with these types of electrical projects.

Relays Track

Title: Who Has the 32?

2/26/18
11:30AM - 12:15PM
Presenter: Benjamin Kazimier, Basler Electric
Description:

The proliferation of distributed energy resources (DER) has led to an increased number of utility interconnection requests. Utility interconnection agreements can be confusing to DER developers and are often misunderstood, not only in scope but in spirit. In the case of co-ops and municipalities without a full engineering staff, these documents may not be understood well internally. Still, once established, these guidelines must be followed or negotiated in an intelligent manner. One topic that is routinely questioned by DER developers and frequently required by the interconnection agreement is directional power protection (32). So it begs the question: Who Has the Power?
While simple in concept, directional power protection often becomes confusing when the conversation extends beyond what is written in the interconnection agreement. Combine the difficulty in understanding the requirements with the differences that exist in different vintages of relays, both solid state and numeric (both of which are popular for directional power applications) and the different CT and VT arrangements available, and it could confuse someone who has little experience with these types of applications. The probability for human error when making CT and VT connections during the installation phase can be a source of additional confusion during testing and commissioning.
This paper seeks to be a tutorial for the application of directional power for DER installations. An explanation of directional power is provided. Examples of interconnection requirements related to directional power are given. Illustrations with waveforms in the time domain and phasors show the power system and the signals presented to the relay for various CT and VT connections. The focus on these figures is not only related to correct connections but also for the consequences when something is connected incorrectly. Thus, the paper can serve as a reference to a utility or to DER developers when questions arise regarding directional power protection.

Electrical Safety Track

Title: Safety Tips for Qualified Persons

2/26/18
11:30AM - 12:15PM
Presenter: Jim White, Shermco Industries
Description:

Although electrical workers have become better educated about work involving electrical hazards, there's still a lot that can be learned. This paper discusses several areas that continue to cause safety issues and injuries, and look at practical ways to avoid hazards associated with performing electrical work.

Transformers Track

Title: Diagnostic Testing and Assessing Insulation System Life

2/26/18
11:30AM - 12:15PM
Presenter: Nicholas Perjanik, WEIDMANN Diagnostic Solutions
Description:

Whether natural aging or fault activity is involved, both the mechanical strength of the solid insulation and the quality of the insulating fluid are significant factors in determining the remaining operating life of a transformer. Across the industry, users and companies that service electrical equipment have relied on Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) and Furanic Compound Testing to determine the age and condition of solid insulating paper in transformers indirectly. In addition to DGA, Furans, and other general oil quality tests there are new test methods being developed to assist in this insulation system assessment. Current work in this area includes the development of a new complimentary ASTM method for detecting the paper degradation markers methanol and ethanol in oil. Relating to the strength of the paper and complimentary to existing laboratory tests, this standard test method can be used to detect the presence of these two degradation markers in electrical insulating liquids at the part-per-billion level. This presentation covers the integration of existing and newly developed laboratory tests for improved insulation system aging and condition assessment.

Reliability Track

Title: The Importance of Power Factor Testing SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers

2/26/18
11:30AM - 12:15PM
Presenter: Jay Garnett, Doble Engineering
Description:

Many companies do power factor testing on oil circuit breakers, but do not power factor test SF6 gas circuit breakers. This paper will cover the insulations tested and the test circuits used for different types of gas circuit breakers. It will then cover some case studies where problems were found doing those tests.

Reliability Track

Title: The Art and Science of High Voltage System Reliability in Industrial Applications

2/26/18
2:15PM - 3:00PM
Presenter: Alan Ross, SD Myers
Description:

The changes taking place in many industrial facilities require an art and science approach to high voltage electrical system reliability. The art is represented by people knowledge, which is fast being depleted as boomers retire. The science is changing almost too fast for us to keep up with.
The biggest change is in diagnostic and analytical systems brought on by Condition Based Monitoring and the Internet of Things adoption. While real-time data streams on critical assets add values, it also creates problems.
The next generations of reliability and electrical engineering professionals are going to face three significant issues as they take over high voltage electrical system reliability:
1. While we all realize that we have an aging infrastructure, the problem is more prevalent in the area of electrical systems due to the age of the assets, particularly transformers.
2. Massive amounts of "Static Data", data that can be all over the place in terms of location, quality and timeliness, is now being coupled with "Dynamic Data" coming from monitors. As a result, we have experienced data chaos.
3. Reliability has become a key discipline, yet we are only scratching the surface with the positive impact reliability professionals will have on high voltage electrical systems. Currently, many organizations have a test, break-fix and run to failure approach to electrical system and transformer reliability. Continuing with this approach will lead to unplanned outages and downtime losses.
Finally, we will discuss the way diagnostics and legacy knowledge can be used in systems large and small, a process that will take coordination between all of the stakeholders affected by the use of power - which is certainly every facet of an industrial or commercial facility.

Equipment Track

Title: Don’t Let a Bad Leak Spoil Your Day, The Latest Solutions for Online Leak Repair of Transformers, Circuit Breakers, & GIS

2/26/18
2:15PM - 3:00PM
Presenter: Jim Hackett, The Colt Group
Description:

Oil and SF6 leaks develop at various locations on both new and aged HV apparatus. If oil or gas are getting out, air and moisture are getting in and impacting equipment condition. In the past repair options were limited to draining/de-pressurizing and re-gasketing, welding, applying epoxy or just wrapping with an absorbent material. Today these leaks can be repaired using a time-proven method that is completed while the leak is active and in many cases with the equipment in-service. No epoxies or welding - a sealant specifically developed for electric apparatus is used - flexible and easily removed. Over 15,000 leak repairs have been documented with this proven process. This presentation will explain the methodology with numerous "before and after" photographs and examples.
Attendees to this presentation will learn some of the latest Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) programs from utilities and power plants in North America, as well as current R & D projects on leak repair solutions.

Symposium

Symposium

2/26/18
2:15PM - 5:00PM
Ron Widup, Shermco Industries
Description:

Remember the time you witnessed a 480-volt fault first hand? And if you heard it more than once that "shotgun blast" was likely the same sound each time. Have you seen the effects a medium-voltage electrical arc flash can have on the human body? What can we learn from these incidents?

There are many documented cases of electrical equipment failures or injury from electrical contact or burns. This symposium will present several case studies, provide opinions as to the cause, and more importantly, actions that could have been taken to prevent the incident from occurring in the first place. We can always learn from our life experiences and knowledge... this session will capitalize on this concept with experts in the industry providing insight and analysis to help us in our quest to live an incident-free existence in the world of electrical power. Don't miss this very informative session!

Electrical Safety Track

Title: Risk Assessment in the Design Phase

2/26/18
2:15PM - 3:00PM
Presenter: Mike Doherty, eHazard
Description:

A practical, interactive and engaging session in regards to the execution of electrical task planning with electrical safety as the main component. Risk assessment procedure as described in NFPA 70E-18 and CSA Z462-18 will be used to obtain an output of "Residual Risk" before any electrical work begins. Residual Risk is the risk remaining after a hierarchy of methods has been implemented by competent and qualified people. Designing safe electrical work into a comprehensive documented plan is a critical skill set for any business unit wishing to keep their crews safe and to maximize efficient and on time schedules.

Transformers Track

Title: Applying Sweep Frequency Response Analysis and Leakage Reactance to Determine Mechanical Faults in a Power Transformer

2/26/18
2:15PM - 3:00PM
Presenter: Charles Sweetser, OMICRON electronics Corp. USA
Description:

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) and Leakage Reactance (LR) testing provided essential information needed to determine the "mechanical" condition of your transformer assets. Fault events or shipping impacts are the main causes for winding damage. Winding movement and/or deformation cause changes in the leakage channels and associated passive RLC elements. Both Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) and Leakage Reactance (LR) can be used in conjunction to identify and confirm any changes in the leakage channels and associated passive RLC elements.

Electrical Safety Track

Title: A Program Within a Program

2/26/18
3:15PM - 4:00PM
Presenter: Terry Becker, ESPS Electrical Safety Program Solutions INC.
Description:

OSHA Regulations in the USA and OH&S Regulations in Canada require that Personal Protective Equipment be provided to employees/workers. An employer after identifying hazards in the workplace, shall implement appropriate "controls" to mitigate exposure or reduce risk. The NFPA 70E and CSA Z462 Standards provide the "tools" for determining arc flash and shock PPE related to an authorized, energized electrical work task assigned to a Qualified Electrical Worker. A key element of the required Risk Assessment Procedure is the mitigation or reduction of severity/harm related to the potential exposure of arc flash or shock hazards. NFPA 70E and CSA Z462 also provide information on Electrical Specific PPE, Tools & Equipment, but that information is not presented in a "Management System" context. An employer's Electrical Safety Program needs to include detailed and comprehensive content and reference information on Electrical Specific PPE, Tools & Equipment. The content included in an Electrical Safety Program is "A Program Within a Program!" This paper and presentation will highlight and discuss the details of this "Program Within a Program."

Transformers Track

Title: Transformer Insulation Field Diagnostics 1.0

2/26/18
3:15PM - 4:00PM
Presenter: Diego Robalino, Megger
Description:

Power Transformer insulation diagnostics in the field has gone a long way since the first testing technology became available more than a century ago. Insulation materials as well as other components within the power transformer have evolved and the instrumentation dedicated to assess the condition of the insulation system has taken a major step towards more efficient, lighter, friendly and accurate technology. Nevertheless, field testing encounters numerous challenges related to infrastructure, accessibility, safety and time.
The use of fundamental insulation diagnostics in the field following best practices allow accurate interpretation of results and reduce the risk of failure. Under complex operations, especially in industrial facilities, spare transformers may not be available, and the need to restore power supply is playing against the testing personnel. Laboratory analysis of results might not be an option. Two or three-day wait (best scenario) may become a two-week wait for dielectric fluid analysis. A testing technician in the field will need to be proactive in the use of the instrumentation and capable to determine if the unit can or cannot return to operation.
This paper covers DC and AC techniques promoted by the industry to evaluate the condition of the insulation system in power and distribution transformers. Special emphasis is given to insulation resistance, power factor and dielectric breakdown tests, considering best practices to carry out the field test and acceptance criteria.

Reliability Track

Title: The Differences Between Acceptance and Maintenance Testing of Medium-Voltage Distribution Power Circuits

2/26/18
3:15PM - 4:00PM
Presenter: Henning Oetjen, Megger
Description:

Distribution system operators face a variety of challenges trying to maintain continuous and reliable power supply to their customers in compliance with accepted quality and performance standards.

Asset Management objectives require balance between the maximum usable life of underground circuits and the cost to maintain them. Distribution companies follow specific quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures to minimize the risk of failure of the electrical equipment before being put in service and once in operation. In that regard, a thorough methodology for acceptance testing is required as well as a clear step-by-step procedure for maintenance testing in the field. The combination of Acceptance and Maintenance testing of medium voltage power cables will improve their reliability over the expected life span of a circuit and prevent a shorter than expected life expectancy

This paper describes the differences in strategy and methodology between Acceptance and Maintenance Testing. It discusses the nature of defects created in a cable system by natural aging vs. workmanship issues and reviews the applicable methods to identify the defects. The technical part provides the basics of the test and diagnostic methods, which have become the standard methods in today's utility environment.

Equipment Track

Title: Application of OLPD Sensor Technologies

2/26/18
3:15PM - 4:00PM
Presenter: Dustin Ashliegh, Power Monitoring and Diagnostic Technology LTD.
Description:

Applications of OLPD Technology, UHF, HFCT, TEV, Ultrasonic and Acoustic Emission methods. Review the application to different HV equipment. A field testing approach to OLPD challenges and practical solutions. As more and more testing companies are applying OLPD to their services, understanding the challenges for testing different types of MV and HV equipment in a field environment is critical to the success of an OLPD program. Understanding the sensor capabilities and the different signal attenuation properties is a must for valid and actionable results. This technical presentation will provide a detailed and pragmatic look at the sensor types and signal propagation and attenuation for different types of MV and HV Assets with a focus on the challenges in the field and solutions to overcome those challenges.

UHF - Ultra High Frequency Sensor Technology - Transmitted RF Signals
HFCT - High Frequency Sensor Technology - Induced PD Currents
TEV - Transient Earth Voltage - Induced PD voltage on the ground plane
Ultrasonic - 40 kHz Centered frequency - Airborne Sound Frequency
AE - Acoustic Emission Audible and non audible sound vibration frequency through liquids and solid materials
Phase-Resolved Measurements: PRPD and PRPS

When using UHF, HFCT or ultrasonic sensors, we use a concept called "phase-resolved" analysis. Consider the sensor that you are using. It has a bandwidth that spans portions of the radio frequency spectrum or the ultrasonic spectrum. There are all kinds of other signals and other energy in that bandwidth that has got nothing to do with PD. It's what we call "noise". Telecommunication signals for example are noise.

Phase-Resolved Partial Discharge (PRPD) and Phase Resolved Pulse Sequence (PRPS) are two modes of comparing the incoming signals to the AC power frequency. The PRPD and PRPS "charts" are shown in real-time. The horizontal x-axis is the phase angle of the power system under test. The x-axis is labeled from 0 to 360 degrees. This is the same thing as 0 to 16.667ms. This is the time it takes for one cycle of the AC power frequency. The vertical y-axis represents the amplitude of the signal. This amplitude depends on the strength of the signal and also on the distance from the sensor to the PD event. In the PRPS mode there is a third dimension. The z-axis represents 5 seconds back in time. So the front of the z-axis shows the timing of the signal arriving right now, and the back of the z-axis shows the signals from 5 seconds ago. This allows you to see the continuity of the pattern of signal timing.

Equipment Track

Title: Proper Grounding to Avoid Disasters

2/26/18
4:15PM - 5:00PM
Presenter: David Brender, Copper Development Association, Inc.
Description:

Data centers and other sensitive facilities have both unique and universal powering, grounding and bonding requirements, often overlooked, and not understood by most designers and contactors.

The primary focus of this presentation is to recommend wiring and grounding techniques and practices that should be part of the design of new or renovated structures, and to examine in particular several case studies of actual data centers that were designed above Code minimums. These practices will help prevent power quality problems from occurring in the first place, or diminish their effect to the point where they are not significant.

We will discuss:

  • The cause of power quality problems
  • The limitations of the National Electrical Code
  • Proper wiring of the ground conductors
  • Isaolated grounds
  • Grounding impedance
  • Backfill materials
  • General rules and other topics
Electrical Safety Track

Title: Implementation of Human Performance Initiative: A Lessons-Learned Case Study

2/26/18
4:15PM - 5:00PM
Presenter: Rorry Phillips, Shermco Industries
Description:

Focusing on human performance can be very beneficial to electrical service organizations. Not only is there benefit in safety-related activities, but an overall reduction in problematic issues can be achieved, both production and safety related. This presentation will looked at current trends in human performance training and implementation, discuss what worked well and what challenges presented themselves.

Transformers Track

Title: Narrow Band DFR Transformer Condition Assessment

2/26/18
4:15PM - 5:00PM
Presenter: Robert Breazeal, Southern California Edison Company
Description:

The Narrow Band Dielectric Frequency Response (NBDFR) analytical protocol consists of a series of power factor measurements in of a range of 1 to 400 hertz. The aggregate of the measured CHL values constitute the dielectric response of the test specimen. The subsequent evaluation consists of a geometric analysis of the trace derived from the measurements vs the numerical evaluation used in conventional 60 hertz tests. As windings age, shifts in NBDFR responses reflect the thermal degradation of oil and cellulose components. With the utilization of NBDFR, the location of the lowest point of the trace (trough) in many cases will supersede the magnitude at 60 hertz as the critical parameter for condition assessment.
SCE performs NBDFR testing on all distribution transformers returned from service to determine suitability for repair and reuse. We are currently evaluating in excess of 2000 transformers annually utilizing this protocol. We have found that the NBDFR when applied in a CHL measurement is the absolute single most effective tool for condition assessment of distribution transformers. In the assessment of 3 phase units, the open DETC crosscheck method is utilized to extrapolate accurate per phase CHL responses to detect anomalies which are confined to a single phase, and would be undetectable using conventional testing methods.
We are currently performing a laboratory study which documents the evolution of NBDFR traces in transformers under varying degrees of overload. This study includes both mineral oil and natural ester (FR3) transformers

Reliability Track

Title: How to Perform a Power Survey

2/26/18
4:15PM - 5:00PM
Presenter: Ross Ignall, Dranetz
Description:

Power monitoring can mean anything from spot checks, to Energy surveys, to Power Quality studies, and anything in between. Many power monitoring applications have a lot of similarities, such as circuit connections and wiring, but the end objectives can be quite different, meaning the tools used may be different. Energy surveys typically look at consumption, with the main goal being how much energy is used, when, where, and how much does it cost. Power quality surveys are focused on the compatibility of the power source to the load, with the objective being to troubleshoot problems, or improve system performance or uptime. Both can be done on a proactive or reactive basis.

This interactive session will review the goals and objectives of both energy and power quality surveys, their similarities and differences. We'll cover how to choose the right equipment, proper instrument connections/wiring and transducer selection. We'll also discuss the necessary steps to properly perform a power survey in order to get the best results.