Title: PRC-005, Can You Pass an Audit?

9:30AM - 10:15AM
Presenter: Bruce Horowitz, American Electrical Testing Co., LLC

NERC PRC-005's time based testing intervals are well known and in most cases strictly followed. However, if an audit is performed on a site or customer, can they pass it? Testing performed within the prescribed time frame does not make the test a success or "in compliance" with NERC Standards. What are the correct relay settings? Where did this come from? Who reviews and approves the test data to make sure the relays are still in compliance? A relay can have an impact on other PRC standards, such as PRC-006, PRC-010, PRC-019, PRC-023, PRC-024, PRC-025, etc. A change of one setting or value can impact these other PRCs. Just because the relay test report may indicate the relay passed the test, does not mean it is in compliance. All test data needs to be reviewed and compared with the design basis and verified that it has not changed. If so, does it impact compliance? It is critical to have a process and methodology to control and issue the correct settings for use in the testing and that any test results are reviewed and approved against them. Also, if computer based relays are employed, it is crucial that the "as left" settings are reviewed, compared to the original and verified to be correct. The owner is required to ensure that their protective system is in compliance with PRC-005 and all relevant PRC Standards.

Title: Applications in Power & Power Quality Monitoring

10:30AM - 11:15AM
Presenter: Ross Ignall, Dranetz Technologies

This session will keep you up to date and cover the most recent changes in the power monitoring standards, tools, techniques and applications. Topics discussed will include the major revisions in the IEEE 519-2014 harmonics standard that effect alternative energy and other applications, along with other industry specific standards, monitoring technologies and techniques. Real world, end user applications and case studies will be used as demonstrations that will help you to get the most out of your monitoring applications. This is an interactive session so please share your own experiences and bring your questions!

Title: Calibration: Levels of Service and Understanding the Differences

11:30AM - 12:15PM
Presenter: John E. Couturier, Energy Northwest

Calibration is calibration is calibration...or is it? The function of calibration is to provide a user of test equipment the assurance that the instruments they use to provide quantitative and qualitative measurement results during testing are accurate and precise. The results of a calibration are documented in a certificate to ensure traceability of the measurements. But, tying a measurement result obtained during calibration to an understandable representation in a certificate can often be confusing, and sometimes misleading. Add to the discussion topics like registration (ISO900x), accreditation (ANSI/NCSL Z540, ISO/IEC 17025), full before and after data, measurement uncertainty, test uncertainty ratios, etc., and the process of simply getting your instruments calibrated takes on a whole new meaning, and that meaning is often open to interpretation. This presentation will take on those issues and more. We'll take a look at the various levels of calibration, and what can, and should be expected from each level. Additionally, we'll break down the documentation provided with each level, and how that information can be beneficial to the test equipment user. We will take a pragmatic approach to the discussion based on understanding the needs of the electrical testing industry, and not some overblown, condescending analysis meant to intimidate. Attendees will take away a better understanding of calibration, and the realization that calibration services are not all the same.

Title: Substation Acceptance and Pre-Operational Testing Plan

2:15PM - 3:00PM
Presenter: Kenneth George Peterson, Hampton Tedder Technical Services

Utilities have the right to verify that the services provided conform to their contractual requirements. A Utility may monitor the performance of the tests and test equipment certification in relation to the work performed as contractually required. The Contractor should develop an approved procedural test description/plan for the assets outlined within a contract or request for proposal. Current accredited National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable calibration certificates for the equipment utilized during test of all assets should be provided upon request. Today, more utilities are turning to contractors to build and commission their substation; as a result, having a detailed commissioning plan can eliminate costly downtime from undiscovered engineering design problems, manufactures defects, and construction wiring errors. Examples of a proper test plan and illustrations of non-conformance to design will be shared with the audience.

Title: Predictive Reliability Analysis Utilizing Economically-Driven Risk-Based Framework

3:15PM - 4:00PM
Presenter: Robert Otal, Director of Asset Management & Analytics, METSCO

Organizations continue to face changes in optimally managing their critical electrical infrastructure, including power transformers, circuit breakers and switchgear - all of which can be extremely cost-intensive to replace. Failure of any of this equipment can result in extensive downtime to the organization, along with lost revenues.

This paper will introduce the concept of an economically-driven risk-based framework, where the failure risk of electrical assets are quantified into a monetary value. This risk cost is balanced against the capital costs to offset these risks in order to identify the economically-optimal replacement time of the assets - also known as the assets' economic-end-of-life.

This framework includes four key building blocks, including (a) determining the assets' probability of failure using age and condition-based failure curves which can predict asset failure, (b) determining the assets' impact of failure as a quantified dollar value, (c) quantifying the risk of failure through the multiplication of probability and impact variables, as well as the (d) economic life-cycle analysis where risk costs are annualized and compared with annualized capital costs (used to offset the risk) in order to determine the economic-end-of-life result.

Leveraging this framework, organizations are able to predict which assets are going to introduce the greatest reliability issues and risks across their system, and prioritize these assets accordingly for action as part of a 10-year investment program. The framework can be used to establish those assets that will require proactive replacement (before they fail) over the next 10-year period, while also identifying those lower risk assets that do not require immediate intervention, but will reach physical end-of-life and require replacement through the maintenance/inspection program. Through the failure curves leveraged within the framework, the organization is able to compare the reliability impacts associated with a "run-to-failure" approach as well as a proactive investment approach (where high-risk assets are proactively replaced).

Application of this framework ensures that organizations are able to maintain or improve reliability over time, while also mitigating the potential failure risk of assets within their system, by taking the right actions to the right assets at the right time.

Title: Validation Testing of Variable Speed AC and DC Drive Semiconductors, DC Filter Capacitors, and Related Devices

4:15PM - 5:00PM
Presenter: Thomas Engel, Al Corcoran, and Kent Wegley, QP Testing, LLC

Over the past decades, a large number of variable speed AC and DC drives (VSD's) have been installed in commercial and industrial facilities. VSD's uniquely combine power electronic, electro-mechanical and microprocessor technologies to control the speed of motors from fractional to 100MW at voltages ranging from 208 V to 13.8 KV.

Analysis of both new and aging of VSD's has shown that there are reliability improvements to be gained through predictive and preventive maintenance actions.

This paper will highlight VSD aging effects as well as approaches to VSD testing that can be applied to the following:
AC & DC Drives
Power Electronic Devices (Diode, SCR, GTO, IGBT, IGCT, Bus Capacitors)
Drive Filters (Input and output)
Operation performance
It will be shown that measures can be undertaken by electrical maintenance staff using standardized tests, running hours and severity of duty to quantify equipment condition and identify corrective and predictive actions.

Results and Implications
Operational Performance and Reliability of the users' complete VSD installed base can be improved by adopting a standardized VSD testing program that includes internal power electronic components, performance benchmarking, and consideration of aging effects.